How-tos

How to use struct types with PyOpenCL

We import and initialize PyOpenCL as usual:

>>> import numpy as np
>>> import pyopencl as cl
>>> import pyopencl.tools
>>> import pyopencl.array

>>> ctx = cl.create_some_context(interactive=False)
>>> queue = cl.CommandQueue(ctx)

Then, suppose we would like to declare a struct consisting of an integer and a floating point number. We first create a numpy.dtype along these lines:

>>> my_struct = np.dtype([("field1", np.int32), ("field2", np.float32)])
>>> print(my_struct)
[('field1', '<i4'), ('field2', '<f4')]

Note

Not all numpy dtypes are supported yet. For example strings (and generally things that have a shape of their own) are not supported.

Since OpenCL C may have a different opinion for numpy on how the struct should be laid out, for example because of alignment. So as a first step, we match our dtype against CL’s version:

>>> my_struct, my_struct_c_decl = cl.tools.match_dtype_to_c_struct(
...    ctx.devices[0], "my_struct", my_struct)
>>> print(my_struct_c_decl)
typedef struct {
  int field1;
  float field2;
} my_struct;

We then tell PyOpenCL about our new type.

>>> my_struct = cl.tools.get_or_register_dtype("my_struct", my_struct)

Next, we can create some data of that type on the host and transfer it to the device:

>>> ary_host = np.empty(20, my_struct)
>>> ary_host["field1"].fill(217)
>>> ary_host["field2"].fill(1000)
>>> ary_host[13]["field2"] = 12
>>> print(ary_host)
[(217,  1000.) (217,  1000.) (217,  1000.) (217,  1000.) (217,  1000.)
 (217,  1000.) (217,  1000.) (217,  1000.) (217,  1000.) (217,  1000.)
 (217,  1000.) (217,  1000.) (217,  1000.) (217,    12.) (217,  1000.)
 (217,  1000.) (217,  1000.) (217,  1000.) (217,  1000.) (217,  1000.)]

>>> ary = cl.array.to_device(queue, ary_host)

We can then operate on the array with our own kernels:

>>> prg = cl.Program(ctx, my_struct_c_decl + """
...     __kernel void set_to_1(__global my_struct *a)
...     {
...         a[get_global_id(0)].field1 = 1;
...     }
...     """).build()

>>> evt = prg.set_to_1(queue, ary.shape, None, ary.data)
>>> print(ary)
[(1,  1000.) (1,  1000.) (1,  1000.) (1,  1000.) (1,  1000.) (1,  1000.)
 (1,  1000.) (1,  1000.) (1,  1000.) (1,  1000.) (1,  1000.) (1,  1000.)
 (1,  1000.) (1,    12.) (1,  1000.) (1,  1000.) (1,  1000.) (1,  1000.)
 (1,  1000.) (1,  1000.)]

as well as with PyOpenCL’s built-in operations:

>>> from pyopencl.elementwise import ElementwiseKernel
>>> elwise = ElementwiseKernel(ctx, "my_struct *a", "a[i].field1 = 2;",
...    preamble=my_struct_c_decl)
>>> evt = elwise(ary)
>>> print(ary)
[(2,  1000.) (2,  1000.) (2,  1000.) (2,  1000.) (2,  1000.) (2,  1000.)
 (2,  1000.) (2,  1000.) (2,  1000.) (2,  1000.) (2,  1000.) (2,  1000.)
 (2,  1000.) (2,    12.) (2,  1000.) (2,  1000.) (2,  1000.) (2,  1000.)
 (2,  1000.) (2,  1000.)]