Metaprogramming

In ‘conventional’ programming, one writes a program that accomplishes a task. In metaprogramming, one writes a program that writes a program that accomplishes a task.

That sounds pretty complicated–so first of all, we’ll look at why it may be a good idea nonetheless.

Why Metaprogramming?

Automated Tuning

A sizable part of a CUDA programmer’s time is typically spent tuning code. This tuning answers questions like:

  • What’s the optimal number of threads per block?
  • How much data should I work on at once?
  • What data should be loaded into shared memory, and how big should the corresponding blocks be?

If you are lucky, you’ll be able to find a pattern in the execution time of your code and come up with a heuristic that will allow you to reliably pick the fastest version. Unfortunately, this heuristic may become unreliable or even fail entirely with new hardware generations. The solution to this problem that PyCUDA tries to promote is:

Forget heuristics. Benchmark at run time and use whatever works fastest.

This is an important advantage of PyCUDA over the CUDA runtime API: It lets you make these decisions while your code is running. A number of prominent computing packages make use of a similar technique, among them ATLAS and FFTW. And while those require rather complicated optimization driver routines, you can drive PyCUDA from the comfort of Python.

Data Types

Your code may have to deal with different data types at run time. It may, for example, have to work on both single and double precision floating point numbers. You could just precompile versions for both, but why? Just generate whatever code is needed right when it is needed.

Specialize Code for the Given Problem

If you are writing a library, then your users will ask your library to perform a number of tasks. Imagine how liberating it would be if you could generate code purposely for the problem you’re being asked to solve, instead of having to keep code unnecessarily generic and thereby slow. PyCUDA makes this a reality.

Constants are Faster than Variables

If your problem sizes vary from run to run, but you perform a larger number of kernel invocations on data of identical size, you may want to consider compiling data size into your code as a constant. This can have significant performance benefits, resulting mainly from decreased fetch times and less register pressure. In particular, multiplications by constants are much more efficiently carried out than general variable-variable multiplications.

Loop Unrolling

The CUDA programming guide says great things about nvcc and how it will unroll loops for you. As of Version 2.1, that’s simply not true, and #pragma unroll is simply a no-op, at least according to my experience. With metaprogramming, you can dynamically unroll your loops to the needed size in Python.

Metaprogramming using a Templating Engine

If your metaprogramming needs are rather simple, perhaps the easiest way to generate code at run time is through a templating engine. Many templating engines for Python exist, two of the most prominent ones are Jinja 2 and Cheetah.

The following is a simple metaprogram that performs vector addition on configurable block sizes. It illustrates the templating-based metaprogramming technique:

from jinja2 import Template

tpl = Template("""
    __global__ void add(
            {{ type_name }} *tgt,
            {{ type_name }} *op1,
            {{ type_name }} *op2)
    {
      int idx = threadIdx.x +
        {{ thread_block_size }} * {{block_size}}
        * blockIdx.x;

      {% for i in range(block_size) %}
          {% set offset = i*thread_block_size %}
          tgt[idx + {{ offset }}] =
            op1[idx + {{ offset }}]
            + op2[idx + {{ offset }}];
      {% endfor %}
    }""")

rendered_tpl = tpl.render(
    type_name="float", block_size=block_size,
    thread_block_size=thread_block_size)

mod = SourceModule(rendered_tpl)

This snippet in a working context can be found in examples/demo_meta_template.py.

You can also find an example of matrix multiplication optimization using template metaprogramming with Cheetah in demo_meta_matrixmul_cheetah.py and demo_meta_matrixmul_cheetah.template.cu.

Metaprogramming using codepy

For more complicated metaprograms, it may be desirable to have more programmatic control over the assembly of the source code than a templating engine can provide. The codepy package provides a means of generating CUDA source code from a Python data structure.

The following example demonstrates the use of codepy for metaprogramming. It accomplishes exactly the same as the above program:

from codepy.cgen import FunctionBody, \
        FunctionDeclaration, Typedef, POD, Value, \
        Pointer, Module, Block, Initializer, Assign
from codepy.cgen.cuda import CudaGlobal

mod = Module([
    FunctionBody(
        CudaGlobal(FunctionDeclaration(
            Value("void", "add"),
            arg_decls=[Pointer(POD(dtype, name))
                for name in ["tgt", "op1", "op2"]])),
        Block([
            Initializer(
                POD(numpy.int32, "idx"),
                "threadIdx.x + %d*blockIdx.x"
                % (thread_block_size*block_size)),
            ]+[
            Assign(
                "tgt[idx+%d]" % (o*thread_block_size),
                "op1[idx+%d] + op2[idx+%d]" % (
                    o*thread_block_size,
                    o*thread_block_size))
            for o in range(block_size)]))])

mod = SourceModule(mod)

This snippet in a working context can be found in examples/demo_meta_codepy.py.